Publisher of Quality Genealogy Materials
Volume 8, Number 2 Mountain Press, P.O. Box 400, Signal Mountain, Tennessee 37377, 1-423-886-6369 January 20, 2016
Publisher's Notes In this article we continue to discuss the Census records. This article focuses on the 1860 and 1870 Census. It is always interesting to compare the two records and see where our ancestors lived before the Civil War and then after. Many families had to move during this 10 year period. Each Census also gives us more and more information about our ancestors that warrants additional research.
As always, we enjoy hearing your comments after each article!
James L. Douthat
1860 and 1870 Census Findings Our last article on the Census talked about those from 1790 up to the 1850 Federal Census . In this article, we want to focus on the 1860 and 1870 Census. I think it is interesting to read the directions given to the census taker for the 1860 Federal Census:
“Schedule No. 1 - Omit record of stores, shops, and all other buildings not occupied or intended to be used as places of abode. Record the occupations of males and females. Enter the value of all real and personal estate opposite the name of the party owning the same, although such estate or a part of it may be in other States or countries.
Schedule No. 2 - Wherever slaves may be found employed (and nowhere else) they are to be registered in the name of the employer or owner - if in the name of the employer, write below his name “employer,” and then record the name and residence of the real owner. If John Smith, in Richmond, employs the slaves of John Doe, in Alexandria, first enter the name of “John Smith, employer,” and immediately under write “John Doe, Alexandria, owner.” In all cases distinguish the owners from the person in whose service they may be hired. All slaves may be entered in the name of the owner, but they must not be entered thus by the assistant of any subdivision other than of that where the slaves are employed, and in such case the name of the employer should be written under that of the owner, in column 1.
Schedule No. 4 [sic] - No entry is to be made of livestock except of that employed in agriculture and by persons engaged in agricultural pursuits.
Schedule No. 5 - The statistics of the oyster trade and fisheries must be entered on Schedule 5. In like manner the productions of tar, pitch, and turpentine, and the returns of butchers and packers.
Schedule No. 6 - Enter, separate, every college, academy, school or other educational institution; every public and private library of more than 1,000 volumes; every newspaper and church in your subdivision, and fill the entries for wages; and, as far as public records will admit, give the statistics of estate, pauperism, and crime. These latter statistics should be given in full for every county by the assistant whose subdivision includes the county records; while, if the subdivision is less than a county, they should enter all the social statistics relating to their particular subdivision on a separate schedule... “
The majority of this information pertains to the gathering of details on the local area and not necessarily the individuals. It would be wise to try to find the set of Census records published separately from the population census. If you are interested in the history of a local area, this is a must. Most major libraries will have this set of materials.
In addition to the vital information on each individual in the Population Schedule you get the occupation of all over age of 15 and up. Most of the teenage children are marked as “students” as they should be. Make note of those “married within the year” as it might be a clue to multiple marriages. As mentioned in the last newsletter, pay particular attention to those that are “married within the year” with six children under twelve. This will probably be a second marriage. Note Line 13 and 14 seeks to know some personal information about the individual like, deaf, blind or cannot read or write.
With the 1860 Census, the use of initials for each individual except for the head of household is a problem. This means that you have to note any tidbit of information on each individual such as age, sex, etc. From other research you will find the names that correspond to the initials. Another of the problems of this census is the way it was microfilmed. The person doing the filming were not always careful in the order of the task. It is not uncommon to find the first entry like one in Hamilton Co. TN’s 1860 which begins, “John - age 9". Here you have to note the next Dwelling Number and Visitation Number to insert John into the proper family.
With the 1870 Census, the first after the Civil War, we find many of our families have moved and are no longer where they have been for years. The Civil War changed the lives of nearly every person living in the United States. Families moved to get out of harms way, many moved west to escape the ravages of war and some just moved to search for fresh land. In this census some unusual questions are asked, such as “Male Citizens over 21 years of age and upward whose right to vote is denied or abridges on other grounds other than rebellion or other crimes.” At this time most of the soldiers of the Confederate states were denied the right to vote and the census now includes those with criminal background. The question of citizenship was pushed even further by the Federal Government at this time. There were thirteen exclusions for citizenship from the Civil War and only the president could restore these to citizenship. There were over 15,000 men that applied for a pardon and it is recorded in the “Special Presidential Pardons”.
The 1870 Census also includes questions about the parents as to their being foreign born. Please note this carefully in your records. Read the questions and answers carefully to gain all of those little tidbits that give a moment of, “I didn’t know that about great-grandpa!!”
Special Presidential Pardons for Confederate Soldiers
Two Volumes, 530 Pages, Perfect Bound, GN-0229, $60.00
Following the Civil War, there were thirteen "confederate profiles" that disqualified an individual from receiving a "general amnesty." If a "rebel" fell under one of these exclusions, amnesty was denied and an application for a "special personal pardon" from President Johnson was required. With 30,000+ listings, this hefty two-volume set is a compilation of confederate names, reason(s) for exclusion, and names of individuals who 'vouched' for them. Included are pardons given individuals in Alabama, Arkansas, D.C., Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, Northern Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.
If you have any questions or suggestions for future editions, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.